In July 1940, consular officials from three nations conspired to open an escape route for Jews out of occupied France. Why did they do it?
The home of a French Jewish jeweller was "Aryanized" and became a Nazi salon during the Occupation.
Before moving his family to Berlin in 1912, Isaak Wohlgemuth prospered as a mover in Danzig. His family roots were in nearby West Prussia.
From 1880s to the 1930s, the Ringel family prospered in the garment trade in the German capital. Herman made men's outerwear.
During the first five years of Hitler's reign of terror, Jewish families of Berlin faced one repression after another.