In July 1940, consular officials from three nations conspired to open an escape route for Jews out of occupied France. Why did they do it?
Schija Ringel and Feiga Kaufler came to Berlin as young people in the 1880s. They had their roots in Jewish Galicia.
From 1880s to the 1930s, the Ringel family prospered in the garment trade in the German capital. Herman made men's outerwear.
During the first five years of Hitler's reign of terror, Jewish families of Berlin faced one repression after another.